What Is Computer Hardware?

Computer hardware refers to the physical components that a computer system needs to function properly. This includes the motherboard, CPU (Central Processing Unit), graphics card, ventilation fans, webcam, power supply and so on.

A CPU is the brain of your computer; it is a processor that processes digital instructions from various programs. It comes in a variety of variants and clock speeds determine its performance and efficiency.


The central processing unit (CPU) is the heart of your pc hardware. It interprets commands from other parts of the pc, like the memory, graphics card and input/output devices, and executes them.

The CPU consists of several components, including an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), processor registers and a control unit that orchestrates the fetching, decoding and execution of instructions. It also incorporates multiple levels of cache to speed up memory access.

The CPU executes programs by fetching program instructions from memory and executing them in cycles. The time it takes for the CPU to execute an instruction depends on the CPU’s clock rate and its ability to perform arithmetic operations.


The Motherboard is the main printed circuit board (PCB) that provides a central communications backbone connectivity point for all components and peripheral devices in a computer. It contains the chipset, the CPU, and memory along with other components like a graphics card and a fast Ethernet network controller.

It has several ports and slots for connecting different hardware components to each other. These include a PCI Express slot for the graphics card, a RAM socket, and a SATA port for connecting a hard disk or an SSD.

A standard motherboard has two or three PCI-Express x16 connections for graphics cards, and a range of PCI slots for expanding the number of peripherals it can connect to. It also has a number of USB 2.0 ports that support connecting external peripheral devices, such as a printer or scanner.

Graphics Card

A graphics card is a computer component that allows your PC to display images and videos. It is used in many tasks, from gaming to editing video or working on CAD/CAM applications.

Your pc’s CPU sends instructions to your graphics card telling it what to do with the millions of pixels on your monitor. The graphics card then runs those instructions through its own processing unit to turn that information into an image you see on your screen.

A graphics card’s performance depends on several factors, including its connections to your motherboard and how fast it can get instructions from your CPU. It also affects how well it can rasterize (or translate) your images, which is the process of turning them into a single, pixelated image.


RAM, or random access memory, is one of the most essential components of any computer. It holds data before it is processed by the CPU, which enables your computer to work with more information at once.

RAM comes in many forms and sizes. It is commonly found in 256 MB, 512 MB, 1 GB, 2 GB, 4 GB, and 8 GB modules.

A computer’s main RAM can be categorized as either static (SRAM) or dynamic (DRAM). SRAM uses transistors to preserve stored data until power is restored, while DRAM uses capacitors to store data that must be “refreshed” with a comparatively large burst of energy every few milliseconds.

Whether you’re looking to upgrade your current RAM or build a new PC, it is important to choose the right type and speed for your system. The best way to do this is to read product specs.

Power Supply

The power supply, often known as a PSU, is the one component that directly connects to most of the rest of your pc hardware. Without it, your PC would simply fail to work.

The PSU’s function is to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). It does this by generating an output voltage and then distributing it through cables to various components in your PC.

Most power supplies have multiple “rails,” each supplying voltage in varying amounts. This voltage is then used by the different system components, from digital circuits to motors for disk drives and fans.

Some power supplies will also have multiple connections to motherboards, with PCIe connectors often found on a separate rail. This has a few negative connotations, however, as many poorly constructed PSUs will put PCIe connectors on the same rail as other PCIe cables, which can overload the system.