The Basics of the Windows System

Windows system is an operating system (OS) that helps users manage their computers and laptops. It facilitates security, network configuration, and access control.

The first version of this OS was released in November 1985 and ran on top of MS-DOS. It included a graphics application called Microsoft Paint.

Window systems like X, Microsoft Windows and the Be Kit or Java encourage event driven programming. Most GUIs communicate through a drag and drop” mechanism that may involve transferring data between applications.

Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

GPUs are specialized processors designed to process and accelerate graphical data, facilitating smooth display of images on computer screens. By delegating graphics-related calculations to GPUs, CPUs are freed to focus on other important tasks, improving overall computer performance.

Compared to central processing units (CPUs), which are built for serial processing, GPUs have massive numbers of cores that handle tasks in parallel. This makes them well-suited to tasks that involve large amounts of data and simultaneous execution, such as accelerating 3D graphics.

GPUs are available in a variety of form factors, from integrated graphics chips embedded in CPUs to dedicated graphic cards used in gaming systems. Their inclusion in CPUs enables thinner and lighter computer systems, lowers system costs, and minimizes power consumption. However, GPUs have their own memory hierarchy and require specialized software frameworks to function properly. Keeping drivers and applications up-to-date helps to ensure optimal GPU performance. Also, GPUs have limited single-threaded performance compared to CPUs.


The processor is the brain of a computer and determines how fast it can run software. Knowing your processor type can help you choose the right software and hardware for your business, or diagnose a performance issue. You can find your processor information in the System Information app, which looks like a computer icon with a “i” on it. Open the app by clicking the Start button, then click Settings or, on older PCs, tap the Win key to open the Control Panel and then select System.

In Windows, the operating system groups logical processors and assigns them to threads. If the system is capable of hot-adding processors, the operating system reserves space in groups for additional processors that might arrive while the computer is running. Applications that use per-processor data structures or whose threads have the ability to scale across multiple logical processors can benefit from modifications that support more than 64 logical processors.


Memory is the short-term storage your computer uses for immediate access to computing resources. It is different from a secondary storage device such as a hard disk or solid state drive, which stores data and programs even when the power is off.

When a program uses up too much of your RAM, the operating system takes it out of the memory and writes the information to your hard disk or other long-term storage. This frees up space in the short-term storage and allows you to run the program again.

Increasing the virtual memory size can improve system performance if you have limited physical random-access memory (RAM). Click the Change button and then select the Initial size and Maximum size options. The default value is 1.5 times the amount of physical RAM installed on your computer. You can also clear the page file at shutdown to release RAM when you shut down your computer. This can help prevent high memory usage by a program.

Hard Drive

Like a digital version of a filing cabinet, the hard drive is where all the information your computer processes is filed away. It stores files that are required by different programs, and when those programs need the information again, the hard drive reads it. Having the data separated into multiple sectors can slow down how quickly it is read, and that’s why many computers have built-in programs for defragmenting the hard drive, rearranging the data so that it all fits in one sector.

Modern computers have three partitions on the hard disk, with the Local Disk (C:) Partition holding the Windows operating system and two other partitions for system operations and recovery. The latter partition holds special tools to help you recover from serious problems starting the computer and loading the operating system.

You can find detailed information about your hard drives and other types of storage devices in the Disk Management utility in Windows. To open Disk Management, in Windows Explorer click the + symbol next to Components and then select Storage.